However, the performance is steadily improving and polymer solar cells promise to enable much lower production costs because the active layers can be deposited from. Solar cells physics kids projects, physics science fair project, pyhsical science, astrology, planets solar experiments for kids and also organics physics science ideas for cbse,icse,gcse,middleschool, elementary school for 5th,6th,7th,8th,9th and high school students. Physics formula for calculating power power current x voltage. Vary the distance of the lamp to the cell by placing the lamp on blocks or books. Chapters 68cover the designs of systems constructed from individual cells includingpossible constructions for putting cells together and the equipment needed for a practioal producer of electrical energy.
The readeris told why pv cells work, and how theyare made. The details of each of the three processes are beyond the scope of this manual. You will need solar cells, voltmeters and tracing paper for the practical. Solar cell characterization apparatus iv characteristics. At the same time, the internal resistance of solar cell has also been calculated through the experiments. The physics of solar cells journal of applied physics 50, 5356 1979. The above data shows that there is significant power available in solar energy. Crystalline silicon solar cells have dominated the photovoltaic market since.
Article pdf available in journal of physics conference series. Repeat the experiment for different values of lamp voltage say150, 200. Determine the emf and internal resistance of an electrical cell objective. Solar cell is the basic unit of solar energy generation system where electrical energy is extracted directly from light energy without any intermediate process. A few basic household items are required for several experiments such as a light bulb and tin foil. Fundamental properties of solar cells, principles and. Practical photovoltaic pv cells were discovered in 1954 when they were demonstrated by powering toys. Published by the american association of physics teachers.
Solar cells are like batteries series and parallel pv cell connections. In 1958 they found wide acceptance as part of the space program. A solar cell uses the photovoltaic effect to convert solar radiation directly to dc electrical energy. The difficulty lies in converting it efficiently and cheaply. In this video we will study the characteristics of solar cell. Sure to spark a greater scientific interest in the world we live in.
A solar cell is an electronic device which directly converts sunlight into electricity. To obtain a viable power output for practical applica. It is suitable for undergraduates, graduate students, and researchers new to the field. An overview of the sequence is shown to the right figure 1. Solar cells physics or astronomy science fair projects.
I tested all the tracking and data logging software routines before running the experiment outside with the real tracker hardware. Pdf solar cell iv curves demonstrate the relationship between the current and voltage across. This book provides a comprehensive introduction to the physics of the photovoltaic cell. Solar cell mounted on the front panel in a metal box with connections brought out on terminals.
Meanwhile, work on the physics of pv phenomena has. For an extensive description of the physics of solar cells, we refer. Light shining on the solar cell produces both a current and a voltage to generate electric power. Hereby, we present the first version of our book solar. Solar information module 62 published february 1982 this book presents a nonmathematical explanation of the theory and design of pv solar cells and systems. Part b semiconductor devices experiment series 3 solar cell solar cell prelaboratory assignment draw the equivalent circuit representing a solar cell. The sequence is a simple set of repeating steps including oxidation, etching, diffusion, cleaning and patterning.
Apparatus for characteristic study of solar cell model no. To plot the vi characteristics of the solar cell and hence determine the fill factor. Solar energy can be part of a mixture of renewable energy sources used to meet the need for electricity. This book presents a nonmathematical explanation of the theory and. Experiments with solar cell from solar kit european physical. An ofsted inspector rated the lesson as good with some outstanding features. Substantially improved agreement between the results of this theory and experiment is reached. I setup the equipment outside once the day began to warm. Curriculum and experiments using the photovoltaic education kits. So i did an experiment with solar cells to obtain an i. The physics of the solar cell can be described well by a number of basic equations, partially. The rate of energy generation or power from the solar cell. Solar cells produce direct current dc electricity and an inverter can be used to change this to alternating current ac electricity.
Constraints on novel solar cellspanels 1 due to the cost of the balance of systems, a solar cell of zero cost must exhibit efficiency greater than about 15% to be financially practical. Student attending the practical in repeat session will get less marks b. A solar cell is a solidstate electrical device pn junction that converts the energy of light directly into electricity dc using the photovoltaic effect. The lab exercises found in this manual focus on the physics that is the basis of issues concerning the generation and use of energy in our technological society. Use a current source representing the photoelectric current and resistors representing the shunt and series resistances. These solar cells are fabricated using a combination of thin film deposition and etching techniques. Pdf the basic equivalent circuit of a pn junction solar cell is most. Such behavior is analyzed in more detail for the example of cdscu 2 s and cd z zn 1. To study the characteristics of solar cell to study the. I have also found some information through the internet about this effect of dust buildup on the efficiency of the panel.
Two meters mounted on the front panel to measure the solar cell voltage and current. In our solar cell experiment, we were tasked with experimenting with solar panels and how they function. Core practical 3 teacher sheet determine the emf and internal resistance of an electrical cell practical activities have been safety checked but not trialled by cleapss. Under illumi nation from an artificial light source with an intensity of 8. Thereis also a chapter on advanced types of silicon cells. This kit includes instructions to do seven fun experiments, as well as an explanation of how solar power is harnessed. The characteristics is given in my book without any explanation. A simple solar cell experiment the following experiment was performed using a commercial polycrystalline silicon solar cell with an active area of 8. The pm section of the worksheet stands for peer marking. Many of the topics that are discussed in this book are also covered in the massive open online course mooc on solar energy delftx, et. Department of physics engineering physics lab manual as per 2017 academic regulation common to all branches of b. This set of experiments responds to requests from teachers of physics in.
Good solar sites usually have greater than 2500 kwhm2 of power available per year. The impressive supply of solar energy is complemented by its versatility, as illustrated in figure 1. Joe wolfe1, school of physics, the university of new south wales, sydney. This experiment will offer a deeper analysis into the relationship between solar panel efficiency and dust buildup. Based on the highly successful german version, but thoroughly revised and updated, this edition contains the latest knowledge on the mechanisms of. Practical photovoltaic pv cells were discovered in 1954 when they were demonstrated by. Hoedsc01 is an effective tool for evaluating the characteristics of solar cell.
Peter wurfel describes in detail all aspects of solar cell function, the physics behind every single step, as well as all the issues to be considered when improving solar cells and their efficiency. Energy use lies at the center of industrial society, the products of which, from light bulbs to cell phones. Experiments in engineering physics physics lab manual fourth revised edition. Effective teaching methods projectbased learning in physics. In the first part of the lab we wanted to see how changing the intensity of light affected the amount of electricity produced by the solar cell. Physics education division ped of the european physical society eps. Class 12, physics experiment,to study the vi characteristics curve of p n junction in forward bias. From basic principles to advanced concepts no longer used. This apparatus allows students in introductory physics course to plot iv characteristics of a solar cell by a simple experiment.
In our experiment, the solar cell and motor had v 1. This experiment introduces students to the physics of solar. Users may need to adapt the risk assessment information to local circumstances. Physics laboratory manual for engineering undergraduates. Pdf fill factor analysis of solar cells currentvoltage curves. Experiments with photovoltaic cells university of oregon. Polymer cells can be made with a power conversion efficiency of 9%, which is still somewhat lower than that of inorganic silicon solar cells with efficiencies on the order of 15%. Experiments are being conducted on alternative grid. From the results of these experiments we found that, the value of i 0 is between. This was because i tried to setup before dawn and things began to gather dew.
The process of conversion first requires a material which absorbs the solar energy photon, and then raises an electron to a higher energy state, and then the flow of this highenergy electron to an external circuit. Solar photovoltaic cells introduction one method of converting energy from the sun solar energy is to use a solar cell also known as a photovoltaic cell. A novel methodology is proposed to obtain exactly the five. Heres how to calculate the power the solar cell delivers to the motor.
This thesis include five experiment about the distance, angle, circuit connection and wavelength of light source, that investigate how theses variables can affect the solar panel function. A fully levelled investigation into how cloud cover effects the amount of electricity solar cells produce. The physics of the solar cell university of california. The physics of solar cells by jenny nelson, imperial college press, 2003. Use features like bookmarks, note taking and highlighting while reading physics of solar cells. Effect of temperature on a solar panel results carrying out the experiment. Pdf method to determine the single curve iv characteristic. We give the upper limit to the solar cell e ciency.
Sunlight can be converted into electricity by exciting electrons in a solar cell. Interesting and inexpensive experiments for high school. Physics laboratory manual for engineering undergraduates dr. Download it once and read it on your kindle device, pc, phones or tablets. Using photovoltaic cells also called solar cells, solar energy can be converted into electricity. Measurement of short circuit current iesc with biasing the solar cell and compare it with the. The power of a solar cell is the product of the voltage across the solar cell times the current through the solar cell. Todd kaiser montana state university solar cell lab manual july 2009 this manual was designed for use with the montana microfabrication facility at montana state university. Newest solarcells questions physics stack exchange. Denis ar con ljubljana, may 2011 abstract this seminar is a short overview of current photovoltaics. Experiments with pv cells uo solar radiation monitoring. Secondly, on lab scale the real contact area of solar cells. Constructing the photovoltaic energy system for light. If youre looking for a free download links of solar cell device physics pdf, epub, docx and torrent then this site is not for you.
Characteristics of solar cell fill factor experiment youtube. Application of pn junctions within solar cells is discussed. This is the total sunlight power that a square meter of land will receive in one year. An experiment to measure the ivcharacteristics of a. Giri department of physics indian institute of technology guwahati a project completed under the curriculum development cell, quality improvement program q. Pdf teaching solar cell iv characteristics using spice.951 199 1056 1016 717 1174 1621 422 1597 1685 605 1201 159 1130 360 1212 746 902 1433 123 1398 529 1498 726 557 1226 89 588 424 1609 299 371 1235 287 496 273 1474 927 1450 1290 1362 1166 578 634